- Ancient Pythian Games
The Greek Pythian Games were held in honor of Apollo. They featured the same sports as the Olympic Games in addition to musical contests.
- Ancient Roman Nutrition
Ancient Roman nutrition among the upper class was fairly poor. Senaca reported the upper classes made themselves vomit at feasts for room to eat more.
Bloodletting covers a broad stretch of history, notably from ancient Greece (and not ancient Egypt) into 19th century Western culture.
- Calcio Fiorentino (Renaissance Soccer)
Calcio fiorentino was an Italian Renaissance sport with elements of soccer and handball. It was popular among nobility, especially the Medici.
- Chinese Chuiwan (Golf)
Chuiwan was a Chinese sport theorized to contribute to the development of golf. Players used a selection of clubs to drive a ball to a hole.
- Chinese Cuju (Ancient Soccer)
Cuju, a sport similar to soccer, was popular for over a millennium across several Asian countries before fading away around the 16th century.
- Chinese Ding
The Chinese ding was a heavy cauldron with powerful symbolic authority. Ancient martial artists would often lift these massive pieces of bronze.
- Chinese Jiao Di
Jiao di was an ancient Chinese sport that may have involved clashing with horned helmets. Sources disagree, though it did involve grappling.
- Chinese Lei Tai
The lei tai was a raised platform on which martial artists would fight. Typically, the goal was to force consecutive challengers over the edge.
- Cold Injury Treatise
Cold Injury Treatise is one of the oldest and most complete Chinese medical textbooks available today, listing 398 entires and 113 prescriptions.
- Colombian Tejo / Turmequé (Golden Disc Toss)
Tejo is the modern Colombian version of an ancient Chibcha sport called turmequé. This game involves throwing metal disks at explosive targets.
- Compendium of Materia Medica
The Compendium of Materia Medica is considered the most influential ancient herbal text in the Traditional Chinese Medicine community.
- Dutch Kolf/Kolven (Medieval Golf)
Kolf (or kolven) was a medieval Dutch sport similar to golf. In this icy game, players struck a ball to a target in as few strokes as possible.
- Egyptian Fisherman Jousting (Water Jousting)
Fisherman jousting was an aquatic combat sport practiced in ancient Egypt. These tomb murals depict boats of men jousting with poles.
- Ethiopian Genna (Field Hockey)
Genna is a field hockey sport played in Ethiopia. It takes place on an open field without boundaries, and sometimes cattle even get in the way.
- European Bandy (Ice Hockey)
Bandy is an ice hockey sport played in Europe for several centuries. Heavily influenced by soccer, it’s distinct from Canadian ice hockey.
- European Lifting Stones
Lifting stones, usually weighing 50 to 500 pounds, have been used for strength contests and rites of passage throughout Europe for centuries.
- French Jeu de Mail (Medieval Croquet)
Jeu de mail was a French ball-and-mallet sport that led to the development of croquet and may have influenced the development billiards.
- French La Soule (Medieval Hockey-Football)
La soule was a medieval sport in which teams of 10 to 100 players would skirmish for a ball to run it across miles of landscape to their goal.
- German Ringen (Grappling)
Geselliges Ringen was a medieval German recreational sport, while Kampfringen was a self-defense system akin to MMA.