Index: All


  • Ancient Pythian Games

    The Greek Pythian Games were held in honor of Apollo. They featured the same sports as the Olympic Games in addition to musical contests.

  • Ancient Roman Nutrition

    Ancient Roman nutrition among the upper class was fairly poor. Senaca reported the upper classes made themselves vomit at feasts for room to eat more.

  • Bloodletting

    Bloodletting covers a broad stretch of history, notably from ancient Greece (and not ancient Egypt) into 19th century Western culture.

  • Calcio Fiorentino (Renaissance Soccer)

    Calcio fiorentino was an Italian Renaissance sport with elements of soccer and handball. It was popular among nobility, especially the Medici.

  • Chinese Chuiwan (Golf)

    Chuiwan was a Chinese sport theorized to contribute to the development of golf. Players used a selection of clubs to drive a ball to a hole.

  • Chinese Cuju (Ancient Soccer)

    Cuju, a sport similar to soccer, was popular for over a millennium across several Asian countries before fading away around the 16th century.

  • Chinese Ding

    The Chinese ding was a heavy cauldron with powerful symbolic authority. Ancient martial artists would often lift these massive pieces of bronze.

  • Chinese Jiao Di

    Jiao di was an ancient Chinese sport that may have involved clashing with horned helmets. Sources disagree, though it did involve grappling.

  • Chinese Lei Tai

    The lei tai was a raised platform on which martial artists would fight. Typically, the goal was to force consecutive challengers over the edge.

  • Cold Injury Treatise

    Cold Injury Treatise is one of the oldest and most complete Chinese medical textbooks available today, listing 398 entires and 113 prescriptions.

  • Colombian Tejo / Turmequé (Golden Disc Toss)

    Tejo is the modern Colombian version of an ancient Chibcha sport called turmequé. This game involves throwing metal disks at explosive targets.

  • Compendium of Materia Medica

    The Compendium of Materia Medica is considered the most influential ancient herbal text in the Traditional Chinese Medicine community.

  • Dutch Kolf/Kolven (Medieval Golf)

    Kolf (or kolven) was a medieval Dutch sport similar to golf. In this icy game, players struck a ball to a target in as few strokes as possible.

  • Egyptian Fisherman Jousting (Water Jousting)

    Fisherman jousting was an aquatic combat sport practiced in ancient Egypt. These tomb murals depict boats of men jousting with poles.

  • Ethiopian Genna (Field Hockey)

    Genna is a field hockey sport played in Ethiopia. It takes place on an open field without boundaries, and sometimes cattle even get in the way.

  • European Bandy (Ice Hockey)

    Bandy is an ice hockey sport played in Europe for several centuries. Heavily influenced by soccer, it’s distinct from Canadian ice hockey.

  • European Lifting Stones

    Lifting stones, usually weighing 50 to 500 pounds, have been used for strength contests and rites of passage throughout Europe for centuries.

  • French Jeu de Mail (Medieval Croquet)

    Jeu de mail was a French ball-and-mallet sport that led to the development of croquet and may have influenced the development billiards.

  • French La Soule (Medieval Hockey-Football)

    La soule was a medieval sport in which teams of 10 to 100 players would skirmish for a ball to run it across miles of landscape to their goal.

  • German Ringen (Grappling)

    Geselliges Ringen was a medieval German recreational sport, while Kampfringen was a self-defense system akin to MMA.